Working memory is defined as the ability to store and mentally manipulate memory contents (Baddeley and Hitch, 1974; Davidson et al., 2006).
Working memory is positively related to general intellectual functioning, mathematics and reading comprehension (Monette et al., 2011; Passolunghi et al., 2007; Swanson and Jerman, 2007; Lesaux et al., 2007). Issues with working memory are associated with difficulty following multistep directions, forgetfulness and inattention (Bignell and Cain, 2007; Engle et al., 1991; Gathercole et al., 2006). Verbal working memory is a weak but significant predictor of attentional ability in everyday activities, such as remembering long sentences and phone numbers (Groth-Marnat and Baker, 2003). Working memory is similarly important for learning, and may be closely related to inhibitory control. In young children (2 to 6 years old), measures of working memory and inhibitory control are strongly related to one another and can be assessed using the same tasks (Wiebe et al., 2008).