Self-management, also referred to as “self-control” or “self-regulation,” is the ability to regulate one’s emotions, thoughts, and behaviors effectively in different situations. This includes managing stress, delaying gratification, motivating oneself, and setting and working toward personal and academic goals. Students with strong self-management skills arrive to class prepared, pay attention, follow directions, allow others to speak without interruption, and work independently with focus.
Self-efficacy is the belief in one’s ability to succeed in achieving an outcome or reaching a goal. Self-efficacy is related to whether a student believes that s/he has sufficient control over his/her environment in order to succeed. High self-efficacy reflects confidence in the ability to exert control over one's own motivation, behavior, and environment and allows students to become effective advocates for themselves.
Growth mindset is the belief that one’s abilities can grow with effort. Students with a growth mindset believe that they can develop their skills through effort, practice, and perseverance. These students embrace challenges, see mistakes as opportunities to learn, and persist in the face of setbacks. By contrast, students with a fixed mindset believe that their own intelligence and talent are innate traits that don’t change. These students typically worry about not looking smart, get upset by mistakes, and give up sooner on tough tasks.